New technologies, increased research activities and improved therapies will further expand the stomach cancer treatment options market. Additionally, more functionally active drugs will become available in the coming years. This will ultimately benefit the market growth and profitability. In addition, the growing number of patients suffering from stomach cancer is expected to help drive the market growth.
PD-1 inhibitors are one of the emerging cancer treatments that are helping to fight the deadly disease. This new class of drugs is targeting the inflammatory mechanisms of cancer cells. The market for these drugs is expected to grow at a high rate over the coming years due to the rising incidence of stomach cancer among adult populations. Moreover, the growing number of research and development activities in the field will boost the growth of this market.
Several pharmaceutical companies are investing in stomach cancer research and development. A number of potential candidates are in the final stages of development and are expected to give a huge boost to the market when they are launched. For instance, Pfizer and EMD Serono, Inc. recently reported promising results from a phase III clinical trial of their immuno-oncology candidate avelumab. In addition, several biosimilars of trastuzumab are entering the market. The increasing preference for biosimilars is expected to further spur the market.
Treatment with HER2 antagonists is an exciting new option for patients with advanced stomach cancer. A monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 receptor, margetuximab, has demonstrated a favorable ADCC profile over trastuzumab in a phase 1 study. It is currently being tested in a phase 1/2 trial for advanced gastric cancer.
Lapatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks HER2 and EGFR signaling. It has recently been approved for second-line treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer, but its efficacy in gastric cancer is still limited. One phase 3 trial, the LOGiC trial, compared lapatinib with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic HER2-positive gastric cancer.
Earlier this year, Bristol Myers Squibb received U.S. FDA approval for its immunotherapy Opdivo, the first gastric cancer immunotherapy. Meanwhile, Amgen recently announced that it had acquired Five Prime Therapeutics, a company with a pipeline candidate for gastric cancer. The antibody will be added to the firm’s oncology portfolio. In addition, AstraZeneca has announced plans to launch its new gastric cancer immunotherapy Enhertu, a biosimilar of trastuzumab.
VEGF, which is a vital regulator of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, has recently been the focus of new cancer treatment options. However, these antiangiogenic therapies have shown only modest improvements in survival and progression-free survival. Still, researchers have not given up and are continuing to focus their efforts on improving the effectiveness of this therapy.
In combination with other treatments, VEGFR antagonists may help fight stomach cancer. Ramucirumab, for example, is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGFR-2. It has been approved by the FDA as a single agent and for use in combination with other drugs. It has shown moderate OS benefits in studies of patients with stomach cancer (OS = 5.2 months vs. 1.8 months with placebo). It is also being studied for use in other cancers.
Sorafenib, an inhibitor of VEGFR-2, is another VEGFR antagonist. It works by blocking signal transduction, inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis. It is given orally and is recommended for patients with metastatic hepatocellular cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or unresectable GC.
Endoscopic resection is a treatment method for stomach cancer that uses an endoscope to remove the tumor. The surgical approach can be risky. Some patients who undergo this procedure should undergo additional gastrectomy and lymph node dissection after the procedure. Moreover, patients with previous cancers or new conditions should undergo strict follow-up.
Endoscopic resection is usually done with the use of a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) that is passed down the esophagus. The surgeon will remove the cancerous portion of the stomach, as well as the omentum, the spleen, and other organs nearby. Because part of the stomach is removed during the procedure, patients will only be able to eat small amounts of food at a time and will need to eat more often.
Endoscopic resection is often used to remove pre-cancerous polyps and early-stage stomach cancers. These tumors are typically found on the mucosa lining of the stomach and have not spread to other parts of the body. It may also be used to remove polyps, which are precancerous growths that grow inside the stomach. The surgery uses a lighted tube called an endoscope that goes through the mouth and into the stomach.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is a less invasive surgical procedure aimed at removing the stomach cancer. Its effectiveness is improved by limiting the amount of tissue removed and preserving patient function. Several studies have examined the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic techniques in a variety of surgical procedures, including pylorus-preserving gastrectomy and sentinel lymph node navigation surgery.
There are two common types of gastrectomy. A partial gastrectomy involves the removal of only part of the stomach, while a total gastrectomy removes the entire stomach. Both methods require the removal of the affected tissue and nearby lymph nodes. Some patients may also need a liver resection after the procedure if the cancer has spread to the liver.